In the past, this group was led by Germany. It was German politicians who wrote the subsidiarity principle into the EU treaties, it was German politicians who enforced the ban on debt assumption for other States or even the ban on the monetary financing of governments. That has long been forgotten. After the German political class under Angela Merkel repeatedly made concessions, other States took over as the advocates of a stability-driven policy of direct responsibility.
On 4 August 2017, the heads of government of Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland published an open letter which backed the EU as a common market but emphasised the responsibility of national policy. Since this beginning, the opposition to centralism under Dutch leadership has organised itself in the so-called "Hanseatic League 2.0". A total of twelve States spoke out against the new euro zone budget proposed by Germany and France. In addition to the three countries mentioned, these were Ireland, Sweden, Belgium, Luxembourg, Malta, Austria and the three Baltic States. Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia, which have been alienated from the EU by migration policy in recent years, also want to strengthen national responsibility on most issues.
List of references for the used photos: